A turntable has a motor that spins the platter, which is attached to the spindle by means of an axle and bearing assembly. The turntable also contains a belt drive system for moving the stylus in the groove of the vinyl disc.
Components of A Record Player
The tonearm is the part of the cartridge that moves along the grooves of the record. It consists of a rigid arm with a stylus at its end. The stylus engages the record’s surface and follows the groove as it rotates.
The cartridge is the physical component of the phonograph; it holds the needle and the magnetically coated plastic shell or “cartridge” containing the magnetic coating on one side of the vinyl record. The cartridge is usually made from molded plastic, although some cartridges are made from metal. Some early cartridges were made from wood, but this was replaced by plastic because wooden cartridges tended to warp over time.
The stylus is a small piece of steel or other hard material (usually diamond) that rides across the surface of the record while being guided by the groove. A stylus can be either fixed-point or free-floating. In a fixed-point stylus, the point remains stationary relative to the record, whereas in a floating-point stylus, it floats freely within a housing that is connected to the arm. The stylus must have sufficient stiffness to follow the groove without skipping. Styluses may be made of various materials including tungsten carbide, silicon nitride, sapphire, ruby, and diamond.
The tonearm is the mechanism used to move the stylus back and forth across the record. Most tonearms consist of two parts: the carriage and the suspension. The carriage is the part that carries the stylus and travels along with the record. The suspension is the mechanism that allows the stylus to travel smoothly, keeping it aligned with the groove. Tonearms come in many different styles such as direct drive, geared, belt drive, etc.
Preamplifiers are devices that amplify signals that are picked up by the pickup coil before they are sent to amplifiers. In most cases, preamplifiers are built into the same chassis as the rest of the audio equipment, which ensures that the signal is strong enough to drive the amplifier stage’s power transistors.
An amplifier is a device that increases the amplitude of a weak electrical signal so that it becomes audible. Amplification is required when recording sound onto a medium like a tape or a disk. Amplifying the weak signals picked up by the microphone improves their quality and allows them to be recorded more accurately.
An equalizer is a device that adjusts the frequency response of the output of an amplification circuit. Equalization is often used to compensate for distortion caused by aging components in older equipment.
Sound is created when mechanical vibrations are converted into electrical energy by a loudspeaker. Loudspeakers are most commonly found in home stereo systems. They also form the final element in a speaker system.
In order to play a record, a turntable motor spins the record at approximately 78 revolutions per minute (rpm). As the record turns, the stylus traces its path along the grooves. When the stylus touches the record, the signal is converted into an electric current which is then amplified and passed through a low-pass filter. The filtered signal is then applied to the input of the amplifier. The amplifier raises the voltage of the signal above the noise level and passes only those frequencies below the cut-off frequency. The resulting waveform is called the analog signal.
This explanation of records should help you understand what records are and how they work. If you have any questions about them, feel free to ask. I will attempt to answer every question you ask.